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Text of the Jones Act

Merchant Marine Act of 1920
From Title 46 of the U.S. Code


SEC. 1. PURPOSE AND POLICY OF UNITED STATES (46 App. U.S.C. 861 (2002)). It is necessary for the national
defense and for the proper growth of its foreign and domestic commerce that the United States shall have a merchant
marine of the best equipped and most suitable types of vessels sufficient to carry the greater portion of its commerce
and serve as a naval or military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency, ultimately to be owned and operated
privately by citizens of the United States; and it is declared to be the policy of the United States to do whatever may be
necessary to develop and encourage the maintenance of such a merchant marine, and, in so far as may not be
inconsistent with the express provisions of this Act, the Secretary of Transportation shall, in the disposition of vessels
and shipping property as hereinafter provided, in the making of rules and regulations, and in the administration of the
shipping laws keep always in view this purpose and object as the primary end to be attained.

PURCHASE ALLOWANCE IN SALE OF VESSELS FOR COST OF PUTTING VESSELS IN CLASS (46 App. U.S.C. 864a
(2002)).2 Hereafter the Secretary of Transportation may make allowances to purchasers of vessels for cost of putting
such vessels in class, such allowances to be determined on the basis of competitive bids, without regard to the
provisions of the last paragraph of section 3(d) of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946.

ELEMENTS CONSIDERED IN SALE OF VESSELS IN DETERMINATION OF SELLING PRICE (46 App. U.S.C. 864b
(2002)).3 Hereafter, no sale of a vessel by the Maritime Administration of the Department of Transportation shall be
completed until its ballast and equipment shall have been inventoried and their value taken into consideration by the
Maritime Administration in determining the selling price.

SEC. 6. SALE TO ALIENS (46 App. U.S.C. 865 (2002)). The Secretary of Transportation is authorized and empowered
to sell to aliens, at such prices and on such terms and conditions as he may determine, not inconsistent with the
provisions of section 5 (except that completion of the payment of the purchase price and interest shall not be deferred
more than ten years after the making of the contract of sale), such vessels as he shall, after careful investigation,
deem unnecessary to the promotion and maintenance of an efficient American merchant marine; but no such sale
shall be made unless the Secretary of Transpor-tation, after diligent effort, has been unable to sell, in accordance with
the terms and conditions of section 5, such vessels to persons citizens of the United States, and has determined to ma
ke such sale; and he shall make as a part of his records a full statement of its reasons for making such sale. Deferred
payments of purchase price of vessels under this section shall bear interest at the rate of not less than 5 per centum
per annum, payable semiannually.

SEC. 7. ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF STEAMSHIP LINES BETWEEN PORTS OF UNITED STATES;
INVESTIGATION AND DETERMINATION; SALE OR CHARTER OF VESSELS; PREFERENCE IN SALES OR
CHARTERS; CONTINUED OPERATION OF LINES; ADDITIONAL LINES; RATES AND CHARGES (46 App. U.S.C.
866 (2002)). The Secretary of Transportation is authorized and directed to investigate and determine as promptly as
possible after the enactment of this Act and from time to time thereafter what steamship lines should be established
and put in operation from ports in the United States or any Territory, District, or possession thereof to such world and
domestic markets as in his judgment are desirable for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the
foreign and coastwise trade of the United States and an adequate postal service, and to determine the type, size, speed,
and other requirements of the vessels to be employed upon such lines and the frequency and regularity of their
sailings, with a view to furnishing adequate, regular, certain, and permanent service. The Secretary of Transportation
is authorized to sell, and if a satisfactory sale cannot be made, to charter such of the vessels referred to in section 4 of
this Act or otherwise acquired by the Secretary of Transportation, as will meet these requirements to responsible
persons who are citizens of the United States who agree to establish and maintain such lines upon such terms of
payment and other conditions as the Secretary of Transportation may deem just and necessary to secure and maintain
the service desired; and if any such steamship line is deemed desirable and necessary, and if no such citizen can be
secured to supply such service by the purchase or charter of vessels on terms satisfactory to the Secretary of
Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation shall operate vessels on such line until the business is developed so
that such vessels may be sold on satisfactory terms and the service maintained, or unless it shall appear within a
reasonable time that such line cannot be made self-sustaining: Provided, That preference in the sale or assignment of
vessels for operation on such steamship lines shall be given to persons who are citizens of the United States who have
the support, financial and otherwise, of the domestic communities primarily interested in such lines if the Secretary of
Transportation is satisfied of the ability of such persons to maintain the service desired and proposed to be maintained,
or to persons who are citizens of the United States who may then be maintaining a service from the port of the United
States to or in the general direction of the world-market port to which the Secretary of Transportation has determined
that such service should be established: Provided further, That where steamship lines and regular service have been
established and are being maintained by ships of the board at the time of the enactment of this Act, such lines and
service shall be maintained by the board until, in the opinion of the board, the maintenance thereof is unbusinesslike
and against the public interests: And provided further, That whenever the Secretary of Transportation shall
determine, as provided in this Act, that trade conditions warrant the establishment of a service or additional service
under Government administration where a service is already being given by persons, citizens of the United States, the
rates and charges for such Government service shall not be less than the cost thereof, including a proper interest and
depreciation charge on the value of Government vessels and equipment employed therein.

SEC. 8. INVESTIGATION OF PORT, TERMINAL, AND WAREHOUSE FACILITIES (46 App. U.S.C. 867 (2002)). It
shall be the duty of the Secretary of Transportation, in cooperation with the Secretary of War, with the object of
promoting, encouraging, and developing ports and transportation facilities in connection with water commerce over
which he has jurisdiction, to investigate territorial regions and zones tributary to such ports, taking into consideration
the economies of transportation by rail, water, and highway and the natural direction of the flow of commerce; to
investigate the causes of the congestion of commerce at ports and the remedies applicable thereto; to investigate the
subject of water terminals, including the necessary docks, warehouses, apparatus, equipment, and appliances in
connection therewith, with a view to devising and suggesting the types most appropriate for different locations and for
the most expeditious and economical transfer or interchange of passengers or property between carriers by water and
carriers by rail; to advise with communities regarding the appropriate location and plan of construction of wharves,
piers, and water terminals; to investigate the practicability and advantages of harbor, river, and port improvements in
connection with foreign and coastwise trade; and to investigate any other matter that may tend to promote and
encourage the use by vessels of ports adequate to care for the freight which would naturally pass through such ports:
Provided, That if after such investigation the Secretary of Transportation shall be of the opinion that rates, charges,
rules, or regulations of common carriers by rail subject to the jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board are
detrimental to the declared object of this section, or that new rates, charges, rules, or regulations, new or additional
port terminal facilities, or affirmative action on the part of such common carriers by rail is necessary to promote the
objects of this section, the Secretary of Transportation may submit his findings to the Surface Transportation Board
for such action as such Board may consider proper under existing law.

SEC. 9. VESSELS SOLD UNDER DEFERRED PAYMENT PLAN; INSURANCE (46 App. U.S.C. 868 (2002)).
If the terms and conditions of any sale of a vessel made under the provisions of this Act include deferred payments of
the purchase price, the Secretary of Transportation shall require, as part of such terms and conditions, that the
purchaser of the vessel shall keep the same insured (a) against loss or damage by fire, and against marine risks and
disasters, and war and other risks if the Secretary of Transportation so specifies, with such insurance companies,
associations or underwriters, and under such forms of policies, and to such an amount, as the Secretary of
Transportation may prescribe or approve; and (b) by protection and indemnity insurance with such insurance
companies, associations, or underwriters and under such forms of policies, and to such an amount as the Secretary of
Transportation may prescribe or approve. The Insurance required to be carried under this section shall be made
payable to the Secretary of Transportation and/or to the parties as interest may appear. The Secretary of
Transportation is authorized to enter into any agreement that he deems wise in respect to the payment and/or the
guarantee of premiums of insurance.

SEC. 10. CREATION OF FUND FOR INSURANCE OF INTERESTS OF UNITED STATES (46 App. U.S.C. 869 (2002)).
The Secretary of Transportation may create out of insurance premiums, and revenue from operations and sales, and
maintain and administer separate insurance funds which he may use to insure in whole or in part against all hazards
commonly covered by insurance policies in such cases, any legal or equitable interest of the United States (1) in any
vessel constructed or in process of construction; and (2) in any plants or property in the possession or under the
authority of the Secretary of Transportation. The United States shall be held to have such an interest in any vessel
toward the construction, reconditioning, remodeling, improving, or equipping of which a loan has been made under the
authority of this Act, in any vessel upon which he holds a mortgage or lien of any character, or in any vessel which is
obligated by contract with the owner to perform any service in behalf of the United States, to the extent of the
Government’s interest therein.

SEC. 12. REPAIR AND OPERATION OF VESSELS UNTIL SALE (46 App. U.S.C. 871 (2002)). All vessels may be
reconditioned and kept in suitable repair and until sold shall be managed and operated by the Secretary of
Transportation or chartered or leased by him on such terms and conditions as the Secretary of Transportation shall
deem wise for the promotion and maintenance of an efficient merchant marine, pursuant to the policy and purposes
declared in sections 1 and 5 of this Act. The term "reconditioned" as used in this section includes the substitution of
the most modern, most efficient, and most economical types of internal-combustion engines as the main propulsive
power of vessels. Should the Secretary of Transportation have any such engines built in the United States and
installed, in private shipyards or navy yards of the United States, in one or more merchant vessels owned by the United
States, and the cost to the Secretary of Transportation of such installation exceeds the amount of funds otherwise
available to him for that use, the Secretary of Transportation may transfer to his funds from which expenditures
under this section may be paid, from his construction loan fund authorized by section 11 of the Merchant Marine Act,
1920, so much as in his judgment may be necessary to meet obligations under contracts for such installation; and the
Treasurer of the United States shall, at the request of the Secretary of Transportation, make the transfer accordingly:
Provided, That the total amount expended by the Secretary of Transportation for this purpose shall not in the
aggregate exceed $ 25,000,000. Any such vessel hereafter so equipped by the Secretary of Transportation under the
provisions of this section shall not be sold for a period of five years from the date the installation thereof is completed,
unless it is sold for a price not less than the cost of the installation thereof and of any other work of reconditioning
done at the same time plus an amount not less than $ 10 for each dead-weight ton of the vessel as computed before
such reconditioning thereof is commenced. The date of the completion of such installation and the amount of the dead-
weight tonnage of the vessel shall be fixed by the Secretary of Transportation: Provided further, That in fixing the
minimum price at which the vessel may thus be sold the Secretary of Transportation may deduct from the aggregate
amount above prescribed 5 per centum thereof per annum from the date of the installation to the date of sale as
depreciation: And provided further, That no part of such fund shall be expended upon the re-conditioning of any vessel
unless the Secretary of Transportation shall have first made a binding contract for a satisfactory sale of such vessel in
accordance with the provisions of this Act, or for the charter or lease of such vessels for a period of not less than five
years by a capable, solvent operator; or unless the Secretary of Transportation is prepared and intends to directly put
such vessel in operation immediately upon completion. Such vessel, in any of the enumerated instances, shall be
documented under the laws of the United States and shall remain documented under such laws for a period of not less
than five years from the date of the completion of the installation, and during such period it shall be operated only on
voyages which are not exclusively coastwise.

SEC. 13. SALE OF PROPERTY OTHER THAN VESSELS (46 App. U.S.C. 872 (2002)). The Secretary of Transportation
is further authorized to sell all property other than vessels transferred to him under section 4 upon such terms and
conditions as the Secretary of Transportation may determine and prescribe.

SEC. 17. POSSESSION AND CONTROL OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES (46 App. U.S.C. 875 (2002)).
The President may at any time he deems it necessary, by order setting out the need therefor and fixing the period of
such need, permit or transfer the possession and control of any part of the property taken over by or transferred to
the Secretary of Transportation under this section to the War Department or the Navy Department for their needs;
and when in the opinion of the President such need therefor ceases the possession and control of such property shall
revert to the Secretary of Transportation. None of such property shall be sold except as may be provided by law.

SEC. 19. POWER OF SECRETARY AND COMMISSION TO MAKE RULES AND REGULATIONS (46 App. U.S.C. 876
(2002)). 4
(a) The Secretary of Transportation is authorized and directed in aid of the accomplishment of the purposes of this Act_
(1) To make all necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this Act;
And the Federal Maritime Commission is authorized and directed in aid of the accomplishment of the purposes of this
Act:
(2) To make rules and regulations affecting shipping in the foreign trade not in conflict with law in order to adjust or
meet general or special conditions unfavorable to shipping in the foreign trade, whether in any particular trade or
upon any particular route or in commerce generally, including intermodal movements, terminal operations, cargo
solicitation, agency services, ocean transportation intermediary services and operations, and other activities and
services integral to transportation systems, and which arise out of or result from foreign laws, rules, or regulations or
from competitive methods, pricing, practices, or other practices employed by owners, operators, agents, or masters of
vessels of a foreign country; and
(3) To request the head of any department, board, bureau, or agency of the Government to suspend, modify, or annul
rules or regulations which have been established by such department, board, bureau, or agency, or to make new rules
or regulations affecting shipping in the foreign trade other than such rules or regulations relating to the Public Health
Service, the Consular Service, and the Steamboat Inspection Service.
(b) No rule or regulation shall be established by any department, board, bureau, or agency of the Government which
affects shipping in the foreign trade, except rules or regulations affecting the Public Health Service, the Consular
Service, and the Steamboat Inspection Service, until such rule or regulation has been submitted to the board for its
approval and final action has been taken thereon by the board or the President.
(c) Whenever the head of any department, board, bureau, or agency of the Government refuses to suspend, modify, or
annul any rule or regulation, or make a new rule or regulation upon request of the board, as provided in subsection (a)
(3) of this section, or objects to the decision of the board in respect to the approval of any rule or regulation, as
provided in subsection (b) of this section, either the board or the head of the department, board, bureau, or agency
which has established or is attempting to establish the rule or regulation in question may submit the facts to the
President, who is hereby authorized to establish or suspend, modify, or annul such rule or regulation.
(d) No rule or regulation shall be established which in any manner gives vessels owned by the United States any
preference or favor over those vessels documented under the laws of the United States and owned by persons who are
citizens of the United States.
(e) The Commission may initiate a rule or regulation under paragraph (1)(b) of this section either on its own motion or
pursuant to a petition. Any person, including a common carrier, tramp operator, bulk operator, shipper, shippers"
association, ocean transportation intermediary, marine terminal operator, or any component of the Government of the
United States, may file a petition for relief under subsection (a)(2) of this section.
(f) In furtherance of the purposes of subsection (a)(2) of this section_
(1) the Commission may, by order, require any person (including any common carrier, tramp operator, bulk operator,
shipper, shippers" association, ocean transportation intermediary, or marine terminal operator, or an officer, receiver,
trustee, lessee, agent, or employee thereof) to file with the Commission a report, answers to questions, documentary
material, or other information which the Commission considers necessary or appropriate;
(2) the Commission may require a report or answers to questions to be made under oath;
(3) the Commission may prescribe the form and the time for response to a report and answers to questions; and
(4) a person who fails to file a report, answer, documentary material, or other information required under this
paragraph shall be liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day that
the information is not provided.
(g) In proceedings under subsection (a)(2) of this section_
(1) the Commission may authorize a party to use depositions, written interrogatories, and discovery procedures that,
to the extent practicable, are in conformity with the rules applicable in civil proceedings in the district courts of the
United States;
(2) the Commission may by subpoena compel the attendance of witnesses and production of books, papers, documents,
and other evidence;
(3) subject to funds being provided by appropriations Acts, witnesses are, unless otherwise prohibited by law, entitled to
the same fees and mileage as in the courts of the United States;
(4) for failure to supply information ordered to be produced or compelled by subpoena under paragraph (2), the
Commission may" (A) after notice and an opportunity for hearing, suspend tariffs and service contracts of a common
carrier or that common carrier"s right to use tariffs of conferences and service contracts of agreements of which it is
a member, or (B) assess a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day that the information is not provided; and
(5) when a person violates an order of the Commission or fails to comply with a subpoena, the Commission may seek
enforcement by a United States district court having jurisdiction over the parties, and if, after hearing, the court
determines that the order was regularly made and duly issued, it shall enforce the order by an appropriate injunction
or other process, mandatory or otherwise.
(h) Notwithstanding any other law, the Commission may refuse to disclose to the public a response or other
information provided under the terms of this section.
(i) If the Commission finds that conditions that are unfavorable to shipping under subsection (a)(2) of this section
exist, the Commission may_
(1) limit sailings to and from United States ports or the amount or type of cargo carried;
(2) suspend, in whole or in part, tariffs and service contracts for carriage to or from United States ports, including a
common carrier’s right to use tariffs and service contracts in United States trades of which it is a member for any
period the Comm
ission specifies;
(3) suspend, in whole or in part, an ocean common carrier’s right to operate under an agreement filed with the
Commission, including any agreement authorizing preferential treatment at terminals, preferential terminal leases,
space chartering, or pooling of cargoes or revenue with other ocean common carriers;
(4) impose a fee, not to exceed $1,000,000 per voyage; or
(5) take any other action the Commission finds necessary and appropriate to adjust or meet any condition unfavorable
to shipping in the foreign trade of the United States.
(j) Upon request by the Commission_
(1) the collector of customs at the port or place of destination in the United States shall refuse the clearance required
by section 4197 of the Revised Statutes (46 App. U.S.C. 91) to a vessel of a country that is named in a rule or
regulation issued by the Commission under subsection (a)(2) of this section, and shall collect any fees imposed by the
Commission under subsection (i)(4) of this section; and
(2) the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall deny entry for purpose of oceanborne
trade, of a vessel of a country that is named in a rule or regulation issued by the Commission under subsection (a)(2)
of this section, to any port or place in the United States or the navigable waters of the United States, or shall detain
that vessel at the port or place in the United States from which it is about to depart for another port or place in the
United States.
(k) A common carrier that accepts or handles cargo for carriage under a tariff or service contract that has been
suspended under subsection (g)(4) or (i)(2) of this section, or after its right to use another tariff or service contract has
been suspended under those paragraphs, is subject to a civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each day that it is
found to be operating under a suspended tariff or service contract.
(l) The Commission may consult with, seek the cooperation of, or make recommendations to other appropriate
Government agencies prior to taking any action under this section.

SEC. 21. COASTWISE LAWS EXTENDED TO ISLAND TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS (46 App. U.S.C. 877
(2002)).5 From and after February 1, 1922, the coastwise laws of the United States shall extend to the island Territories
and possessions of the United States not now covered thereby, and the Secretary of Transportation is directed prior to
the expiration of such year to have established adequate steamship service at reasonable rates to accommodate the
commerce and the passenger travel of said islands and to maintain and operate such service until it can be taken over
and operated and maintained upon satisfactory terms by private capital and enterprise: Provided, That if adequate
shipping service is not established by February 1, 1922, the President shall extend the period herein allowed for the
establishment of such service in the case of any island Territory or possession for such time as may be necessary for
the establishment of adequate shipping facilities therefor: Provided further, That until Congress shall have authorized
the registry as vessels of the United States of vessels owned in the Philippine Islands, the Government of the
Philippine Islands is hereby authorized to adopt, from time to time, and enforce regulations governing the
transportation of merchandise and passengers between ports or places in the Philippine Archipelago: And provided
further, That the foregoing provisions of this section shall not take effect with reference to the Philippine Islands until
the President of the United States after a full investigation of the local needs and conditions shall, by proclamation,
declare that an adequate shipping service has been established as herein provided and fix a date for the going into
effect of the same: And provided further, That the coastwise laws of the United States shall not extend to the Virgin
Islands of the United States until the President of the United States shall, by proclamation, declare that such coastwise
laws shall extend to the Virgin Islands and fix a date for the going into effect of same.

SEC. 27. JONES ACT - TRANSPORTATION OF MERCHANDISE BETWEEN POINTS IN UNITED STATES IN OTHER
THAN DOMESTIC BUILT OR REBUILT AND DOCUMENTED VESSELS; INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
AT SEA (46 App. U.S.C. 883 (2002)).6 No merchandise, including merchandise owned by the United States
Government, a State (as defined in section 2101 of title 46, United States Code), or a subdivision of a State, shall be
transported by water, or by land and water, on penalty of forfeiture of the merchandise (or a monetary amount up to
the value thereof as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, or the actual cost of the transportation, whichever is
greater, to be recovered from any consignor, seller, owner, importer, consignee, agent, or other person or persons so
transporting or causing said merchandise to be transported), between points in the United States, including Districts,
Territories, and possessions thereof embraced within the coastwise laws, either directly or via a foreign port, or for any
part of the transportation, in any other vessel than a vessel built in and documented under the laws of the United
States and owned by persons who are citizens of the United States,7 or vessels to which the privilege of engaging in the
coastwise trade is extended by sections 18 or 22 of this Act: Provided, That no vessel of more than 200 gross tons (as
measured under chapter 143 of title 46, United States Code) having at any time acquired the lawful right to engage in
the coastwise trade, either by virtue of having been built in, or documented under the laws of the United States, and
later sold foreign in whole or in part, or placed under foreign registry, shall hereafter acquire the right to engage in
the coastwise trade: Provided further, That no vessel which has acquired the lawful right to engage in the coastwise
trade, by virtue of having been built in or documented under the laws of the United States, and which has later been
rebuilt, shall have the right thereafter to engage in the coastwise trade, unless the entire rebuilding, including the
construction of any major components of the hull or superstructure of the vessel, is effected within the United States,
its Territories (not including trust territories), or its possessions: Provided further, That this section shall not apply to
merchandise transported between points within the continental United States, including Alaska, over through routes
heretofore or hereafter recognized by the Surface Transportation Board for which routes rate tariffs have been or
shall hereafter be filed with the Board when such routes are in part over Canadian rail lines and their own or other
connecting water facilities: Provided further, That this section shall not become effective upon the Yukon River until
the Alaska Railroad shall be completed and the Secretary of Transportation shall find that proper facilities will be
furnished for transportation by persons citizens of the United States for properly handling the traffic: Provided
further, That this section shall not apply to the transportation of merchandise loaded on railroad cars or to motor
vehicles with or without trailers, and with their passengers or contents when accompanied by the operator thereof,
when such railroad cars or motor vehicles are transported in any railroad car ferry operated between fixed termini on
the Great Lakes as part of a rail route, if such car ferry is owned by a common carrier by water and operated as part of
a rail route with the approval of the Surface Transportation Board, and if the stock of such common carrier by water,
or its predecessor, was owned or controlled by a common carrier by rail prior to June 5, 1920, and if the stock of the
common carrier owning such car ferry is with the approval of the Board, now owned or controlled by any common
carrier by rail and if such car ferry is built in and documented under the laws of the United States: Provided further,
That upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary of the Treasury by regulation may prescribe, and, if the
transporting vessel is of foreign registry, upon a finding by the Secretary of the Treasury, pursuant to information
obtained and furnished by the Secretary of State, that the government of the nation of registry extends reciprocal
privileges to vessels of the United States, this section shall not apply to the transportation by vessels of the United
States not qualified to engage in the coastwise trade, or by vessels of foreign registry, of (a) empty cargo vans, empty
lift vans, and empty shipping tanks, (b) equipment for use with cargo vans, lift vans, or shipping tanks, (c) empty
barges specifically designed for carriage aboard a vessel and equipment, excluding propulsion equipment, for use with
such barges, and (d) any empty instrument for international traffic exempted from application of the customs laws by
the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to the provisions of section 322(a), Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1322)(a)), if
the articles described in clauses (a) through (d) are owned or leased by the owner or operator of the transporting vessel
and are transported for his use in handling his cargo in foreign trade; and (e) stevedoring equipment and material, if
such equipment and material is owned or leased by the owner or operator of the transporting vessel, or is owned or
leased by the stevedoring company contracting for the lading or unlading of that vessel, and is transported without
charge for use in the handling of cargo in foreign trade; Provided further, That upon such terms and conditions as the
Secretary of the Treasury by regulation may prescribe, and, if the transporting vessel is of foreign registry, upon his
finding, pursuant to information furnished by the Secretary of State, that the government of the nation of registry
extends reciprocal privileges to vessels of the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury may suspend the application
of this section to the transportation of merchandise between points in the United States (excluding transportation
between the continental United States and noncontiguous states, districts, territories, and possessions embraced within
the coastwise laws) which, while moving in the foreign trade of the United States, is transferred from a non-self-
propelled barge certified by the owner or operator to be specifically designed for carriage aboard a vessel and regularly
carried aboard a vessel in foreign trade to another such barge owned or leased by the same owner or operator, without
regard to whether any such barge is under foreign registry or qualified to engage in the coastwise trade: Provided
further, That until April 1, 1984, and notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, any vessel documented
under the laws of the United States and owned by persons who are citizens of the United States may, when operated
upon a voyage in foreign trade, transport merchandise in cargo vans, lift vans, and shipping-tanks between points
embraced within the coastwise laws for transfer to or when transferred from another vessel or vessels, so documented
and owned, of the same operator when the merchandise movement has either a foreign origin or a foreign destination;
but this proviso (1) shall apply only to vessels which that same operator owned, chartered or contracted for the
construction of prior to the date of the enactment of this proviso [enacted Nov. 16, 1979], and (2) shall not apply to
movements between points in the contiguous United States and points in Hawaii, Alaska, the Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico and United States territories and possessions. For the purposes of this section, after December 31, 1983, or after
such time as an appropriate vessel has been constructed and documented as a vessel of the United States, the
transportation of hazardous waste, as defined in section 1004(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of
1976 (42 U.S.C. 6903(5)), from a point in the United States for the purpose of the incineration at sea of that waste shall
be deemed to be transportation by water of merchandise between points in the United States: Provided, however, That
the provisions of this sentence shall not apply to this transportation when performed by a foreign-flag ocean
incineration vessel, owned by or under construction on May 1, 1982, for a corporation wholly owned by a citizen of the
United States; the term "citizen of the United States", as used in this provison, means a corporation as defined in
sections 2(a) and 2(b) of the Shipping Act, 1916 (46 U.S.C. 802(a) and (b)). The incineration equipment on these vessels
shall meet all current United States Coast Guard and Environmental Protection Agency standards. These vessels shall,
in addition to any other inspections by the flag state, be inspected by the United States Coast Guard, including drydock
inspections and internal examinations of tanks and void spaces, as would be required of a vessel of the United States.
Satisfactory inspection shall be certified in writing by the Secretary of Transportation. Such inspections may occur
concurrently with any inspections required by the flag state or subsequent to but no more than one year after the
initial issuance or the next scheduled issuance of the Safety of Life at Sea Safety Construction Certificate. In making
such inspections, the Coast Guard shall refer to the conditions established by the initial flag state certification as the
basis for evaluating the current condition of the hull and superstructure. The Coast Guard shall allow the substitution
of an equivalent fitting, material, appliance, apparatus, or equipment other than that required for vessels of the United
States if the Coast Guard has been satisfied that fitting, material, appliance, apparatus, or equipment is at least as
effective as that required for vessels of the United States. Provided further, That for the purposes of this section,
supplies aboard United States documented fish processing vessels, which are necessary and used for the processing or
assembling of fishery products aboard such vessels, shall be considered ship’s equipment and not merchandise:
Provided further, That for purposes of this section, the term "merchandise" includes valueless material: Provided
further, That this section applies to the transportation of valueless material or any dredged material regardless of
whether it has commercial value, from a point or place in the United States or a point or place on the high seas within
the Exclusive Economic Zone as defined in the Presidential Proclamation of March 10, 1983, to another point or place
in the United States or a point or place on the high seas within that Exclusive Economic Zone: Provided further, That
the transportation of any platform jacket in or on a launch barge between two points in the United States, at one of
which there is an installation or other device within the meaning of section 4(a) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands
Act (43 U.S.C. 1333(a)), shall not be deemed transportation subject to this section if the launch barge has a launch
capacity of 12,000 long tons or more, was built as of the date of enactment of this proviso [enacted June 7, 1988], and
is documented under the laws of the United States, and the platform jacket cannot be transported on and launched
from a launch barge of lesser launch capacity that is identified by the Secretary of Transportation and is available for
such transportation;8 and for the purposes of this proviso, the term "platform jacket" includes any type of offshore
drilling or production structure or components, including platform jackets, tension leg or SPAR platform
superstructures (including the deck, drilling rig and support utilities, and supporting structure) hull (including vertical
legs and connecting pontoons or vertical cylinder), tower and base sections of a platform jacket, jacket structures, and
deck modules (known as "topsides") of a hydrocarbon development and production platform.

REPORTS REQUIRED OF UNITED STATES VESSELS REBUILT ABROAD, PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO REPORT;
MITIGATION OF PENALTY (46 App. U.S.C. 883a (2002))9 If any vessel of more than five hundred gross tons as
measured under section 14502 of title 46, United States Code, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302
of that title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of that title documented under the laws of the United
States, or last documented under such laws, is rebuilt, and any part of the rebuilding, including the construction of
major components of the hull and superstructure of the vessel, is not effected within the United States, its Territories
(not including trust territories) or its possessions, a report of the circumstances of such rebuilding shall be made to the
Secretary of the Treasury, upon the first arrival of the vessel thereafter at a port within the customs territory of the
United States, if rebuilt outside the United States, its Territories (not including trust territories), or its possessions, or,
in any other case, upon completion of the rebuilding, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may
prescribe. If the required report is not made, the vessel, together with its tackle, apparel, equipment, and furniture,
shall be forfeited, and the master and owner shall each be liable to a penalty of $ 200. Any penalty or forfeiture
incurred under this Act may be remitted or mitigated by the Secretary under the provisions of section 5294 of the
Revised Statutes of the United States, as amended (U. S. C., 1952 edition, title 46, sec. 7)
REGULATIONS (46 App. U.S.C. 883b (2002)).10 The Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe such regulations as may
be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.

SEC. 27A. BOWATERS AMENDMENT - CORPORATION AS CITIZEN; FISHERIES AND TRANSPORTATION OF
MERCHANDISE OR PASSENGERS BETWEEN POINTS IN UNITED STATES; PARENT AND SUBSIDIARY
CORPORATIONS; DOMESTIC BUILT VESSELS; CERTIFICATE; SURRENDER OF DOCUMENTS ON CHANGE IN
STATUS (46 App. U.S.C. 883-1 (2002)). Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a corporation incorporated under
the laws of the United States or any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, shall be deemed to be a citizen of
the United States for the purposes of and within the meaning of that term as used in sections 9 and 37 of the Shipping
Act, 1916, as amended (46 U. S. C. 808, 835), section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, as amended (46 U. S. C.
883), Revised Statutes, section 4370 (46 U. S. C. 316), and the laws relating to the documentation of vessels, if it is
established by a certificate filed with the Secretary of the Treasury as hereinafter provided, that_
(a) a majority of the officers and directors of such corporation are citizens of the United States;
(b) not less than 90 per centum of the employees of such corporation are residents of the United States;
(c) such corporation is engaged primarily in a manufacturing or mineral industry in the United States or any Territory,
District, or possession thereof;
(d) the aggregate book value of the vessels owned by such corporation does not exceed 10 per centum of the aggregate
book value of the assets of such corporation; and
(e) such corporation purchases or produces in the United States, its Territories, or possessions not less than 75 per
centum of the raw materials used or sold in its operations.
but no vessel owned by any such corporation shall engage in the fisheries or in the transportation of merchandise or
passengers for hire between points in the United States, including Territories, Districts, and possessions thereof,
embraced within the coastwise laws, except as a service for a parent or subsidiary corporation and except when such
vessel is under demise or bareboat charter at prevailing rates for use otherwise than in the domestic noncontiguous
trades from any such corporation to a carrier subject to jurisdiction under subchapter II of chapter 135 of title 49,
United States Code, which otherwise qualifies as a citizen under section 2 of the Shipping Act, 1916, as amended (46 U.
S. C. 802), and which is not connected, directly or indirectly, by way of ownership or control with such corporation.
As used herein (1), the term "parent" means a corporation which controls, directly or indirectly, at least 50 per
centum of the voting stock of such corporation, and (2), the term "subsidiary" means a corporation not less than 50
per centum of the voting stock of which is controlled, directly or indirectly, by such corporation or its parent, but no
corporation shall be deemed to be a "parent" or "subsidiary" hereunder unless it is incorporated under the laws of the
United States, or any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, and there has been filed with the Secretary of
the Treasury a certificate as hereinafter provided.
Vessels built in the United States and owned by a corporation meeting the conditions hereof which are non-self-
propelled or which, if self-propelled, are of less than five hundred gross tons as measured under section 14502 of title
46, United States Code, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of that title as prescribed by the
Secretary under section 14104 of that title shall be entitled to documentation under the laws of the United States, and
except as restricted by this section, shall be entitled to engage in the coastwise trade and, together with their owners or
masters, shall be entitled to all the other benefits and privileges and shall be subject to the same requirements,
penalties, and forfeitures as may be applicable in the case of vessels built in the United States and otherwise
documented or exempt from documentation under the laws of the United States.
A corporation seeking hereunder to document a vessel under the laws of the United States or to operate a vessel
exempt from documentation under the laws of the United States shall file with the Secretary of the Treasury of the
United States a certificate under oath, in such form and at such times as may be prescribed by him, executed by its
duly authorized officer or agent, establishing that such corporation complies with the conditions of this section above
set forth. A "parent" or "subsidiary" of such corporation shall likewise file with the Secretary of the Treasury a
certificate under oath, in such form and at such time as may be prescribed by him, executed by its duly authorized
officer or agent, establishing that such "parent" or "subsidiary" complies with the conditions of this section above set
forth, before such corporation may transport any merchandise or passengers for such parent or subsidiary. If any
material matter of fact alleged in any such certificate which, within the knowledge of the party so swearing is not true,
there shall be a forfeiture of the vessel (or the value thereof) documented or operated hereunder in respect to which
the oath shall have been made. If any vessel shall transport merchandise for hire in violation of this section, such
merchandise shall be forfeited to the United States. If any vessel shall transport passengers for hire in violation of this
section, such vessel shall be subject to a penalty of $200 for each passenger so transported. Any penalty or forfeiture
incurred under this section may be remitted or mitigated by the Secretary of the Treasury under the provisions of
section 7 of title 46, United States Code.
Any corporation which has filed a certificate with the Secretary of the Treasury as provided for herein shall cease to be
qualified under this section if there is any change in its status whereby it no longer meets the conditions above set
forth, and any documents theretofore issued to it, pursuant to the provisions of this section, shall be forthwith
surrendered by it to the Secretary of the Treasury.

SEC. 28. CHARGES FOR TRANSPORTATION SUBJECT TO INTERSTATE COMMERCE PROVISIONS (46 App. U.S.
C. 884 (2002)). No carrier shall charge, collect, or receive, for transportation subject to the Interstate Commerce Act
of persons or property, under any joint rate, fare, or charge, or under any export, import, or other proportional rate,
fare, or charge, which is based in whole or in part on the fact that the persons or property affected thereby is to be
transported to, or has been transported from, any port in a possession or dependency of the United States, or in a
foreign country, by a carrier by water in foreign commerce, any lower rate, fare, or charge than that charged,
collected, or received by it for the transportation of persons, or of a like kind of property, for the same distance, in the
same direction, and over the same route, in connection with commerce wholly within the United States, unless the
vessel so transporting such persons or property is, or unless it was at the time of such transportation by water,
documented under the laws of the United States. Whenever the Secretary of Transportation is of the opinion, however,
that adequate shipping facilities to or from any port in a possession or dependency of the United States or a foreign
country are not afforded by vessels so documented, he shall certify this fact to the Surface Transportation Board, and
the Board may, by order, suspend the operation of the provisions of this section with respect to the rates, fares, and
charges for the transportation by rail of persons and property transported from, or to be transported to such ports, for
such length of time and under such terms and conditions as he may prescribe in such order, or in any order
supplemental thereto. Such suspension of operation of the provisions of this section may be terminated by order of the
Board whenever the Secretary of Transportation is of the opinion that adequate shipping facilities by such vessels to
such ports are afforded and shall so certify to the Board.

SEC. 29. ASSOCIATION OF MARINE INSURANCE COMPANIES; APPLICATION OF ANTITRUST LAWS (46 App. U.
S.C. 885 (2002)).
(a) Whenever used in this section_
(1) The term "association" means any association, exchange, pool, combination, or other arrangement for concerted
action; and
(2) The term "marine insurance companies" means any persons, companies, or associations, authorized to write
marine insurance or reinsurance under the laws of the United States or of a State, Territory, District, or possession
thereof.
(b) Nothing contained in the "anti-trust laws" as designated in section 1 of the Act entitled "An Act to supplement
existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes," approved October 15, 1914, shall be
construed as declaring illegal an association entered into by marine insurance companies for the following purposes:
To transact a marine insurance and reinsurance business in the United States and in foreign countries and to reinsure
or otherwise apportion among its membership the risks undertaken by such association or any of the component
members.

SEC. 33. JONES ACT - RECOVERY FOR INJURY TO OR DEATH OF SEAMAN (46 App. U.S.C. 688 (2002)).
(a) Application of Railway Employee Statutes; Jurisdiction. Any seaman who shall suffer personal injury in the course
of his employment may, at his election, maintain an action for damages at law, with the right of trial by jury, and in
such action all statutes of the United States modifying or extending the common-law right or remedy in cases of
personal injury to railway employees shall apply; and in case of the death of any seaman as a result of any such
personal injury the personal representative of such seaman may maintain an action for damages at law with the right
of trial by jury, and in such action all statutes of the United States conferring or regulating the right of action for
death in the case of railway employees shall be applicable. Jurisdiction in such actions shall be under the court of the
district in which the defendant employer resides or in which his principal office is located.
(b) Limitation for Certain Aliens; Applicability in Lieu of Other Remedy.
(1) No action may be maintained under subsection (a) or under any other maritime law of the United States for
maintenance and cure or for damages for the injury or death of a person who was not a citizen or permanent resident
alien of the United States at the time of the incident giving rise to the action, if the incident occurred_
(A) while that person was in the employ of an enterprise engaged in the exploration, development, or production of
offshore mineral or energy resources"including but not limited to drilling, mapping, surveying, diving, pipelaying,
maintaining, repairin
g, constructing, or transporting supplies, equipment or personnel, but not including transporting those resources by a
vessel constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in the cargo spaces; and
(B) in the territorial waters or waters overlaying the continental shelf of a nation other than the United States, its
territories, or possessions. As used in this paragraph, the term "continental shelf" has the meaning stated in Article I
of the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not be applicable if the person bringing the action
establishes that no remedy was available to that person_
(A) under the laws of the nation asserting jurisdiction over the area in which the incident occurred; or
(B) under the laws of the nation in which, at the time of the incident, the person for whose injury or death a remedy is
sought maintained citizenship or residency.

SEC. 36. PARTIAL INVALIDITY (46 App. U.S.C. 887 (2002)). If any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional
or the application of any provision to certain circumstances be held invalid, the remainder of the Act and the
application of such provisions to circumstances other than those as to which it is
held invalid shall not be affected thereby.

SEC. 37. DEFINITIONS (46 App. U.S.C. 888 (2002)). When used in this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, the
terms "person," "vessel," "documented under the laws of the United States," and "citizen of the United States" shall
have the meaning assigned to them by sections 1 and 2 of the "Shipping Act, 1916," as amended; the term "board"
means the United States Shipping Board; and the term "alien" means any person not a citizen of the United States.

SEC. 39. SHORT TITLE (46 App. U.S.C. 889 (2002)). This Act may be cited as the Merchant Marine Act, 1920.


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